X

熱門

簡介

GIST

監製:Tang Man Mei May


Between Two Generations

最新

LATEST
25/10/2016
相片集
相片集

The Time for Cultivation

Hong Kong had plenty of agricultural land in the last century during the 50’s and 60’s. The self-sufficient rate was as high as 70%. Old farmers can sustain the whole family of a few members only by farming.

Everyone needs vegetables. But why is agriculture still declining? This is the down side brought by the reform and opening of China. In the 80’s, veteran local farmers and mainland investors set up vegetable farm in the mainland with their experience and skill and lumped the Hong Kong market with low priced produce. This was a big blow to the local famers, which made their days numbered. 40-year-old Wong Yung-heung can be regarded as the only surviving young farmer in Pat Heung. She sustains her living by relying on her father’s traditional knowledge on agriculture. With limited harvest now, she only sells her produce at low price at the wholesale market through the Vegetables Marketing Co-operatives Societies, earning an income which just makes ends meet. Cheung Sha Wan Vegetables Wholesale Market managed by Vegetables Marketing Organization is the destination of the remaining twenty-six co-operatives in the whole of Hong Kong. In the 70’s, trucks of local farmers from co-operatives of different districts came here non-stop. After the handover, large trucks containing mainland produce replaced them. Today, local produce only takes up less than 2% of supply in the market.

In the mid 80’s, there were a few incidents of poisonous vegetables in Hong Kong. But challenge also brings about opportunities. Citizens become increasingly aware of food safety. The Agricultural, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) introduced the Accredited Farm Scheme in 1994, encouraging farmers to deploy best practice and use pesticides appropriately in order to regain confidence in local produce. After the handover, citizens are still suspicious about imported food from the mainland. The society has long advocated organic farming which does not involve the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The AFCD started encouraging famers to change to organic farming in 2000. However, it was still at its infancy and there was not enough technical support. Some failed and quitted, some struggled to change their course and some adhered to the traditional farming method. Traditional farming cannot make its transition to and organic farming. While organic vegetables have become the mainstream, the market neglects traditional produce nevertheless. The gap between the old and new is wide.

There has been a heavy reliance on infrastructure and property development in the land policy of Hong Kong. Landowners would rather wait for resumption instead of renting the land out for enthusiasts to farm. There is land which is uncultivated and at the same time, there are people searching for land to farm. This is the reality of agriculture in Hong Kong now. It is difficult to find land and tenancy is short term. New organic farmers can only searcher for land in areas which are increasingly remote. Li Lin lives in the western part of the New Territories and has transitioned to become an organic farmer like Andy. Both can only find their land, and dream in remote Mui Wo and Pui O.

Old farmers may have retired but young ones born in the 90’s inherit to become full-time farmers. Two generations of farmers met by chance in the disappearing northwestern part of the New Territories. They do not care much about income but the love of land and inheritance of skills. Famers in the past replied on bare hands to live. The new generation of famers needs to perform multiple functions. Would a new light be shed on agriculture thereafter…


Producer: Queenie SIN

重溫

CATCHUP
08 - 10
2016
RTHK 31
  • The Time for Cultivation

    The Time for Cultivation

    Hong Kong had plenty of agricultural land in the last century during the 50’s and 60’s. The self-sufficient rate was as high as 70%. Old farmers can sustain the whole family of a few members only by farming.

    Everyone needs vegetables. But why is agriculture still declining? This is the down side brought by the reform and opening of China. In the 80’s, veteran local farmers and mainland investors set up vegetable farm in the mainland with their experience and skill and lumped the Hong Kong market with low priced produce. This was a big blow to the local famers, which made their days numbered. 40-year-old Wong Yung-heung can be regarded as the only surviving young farmer in Pat Heung. She sustains her living by relying on her father’s traditional knowledge on agriculture. With limited harvest now, she only sells her produce at low price at the wholesale market through the Vegetables Marketing Co-operatives Societies, earning an income which just makes ends meet. Cheung Sha Wan Vegetables Wholesale Market managed by Vegetables Marketing Organization is the destination of the remaining twenty-six co-operatives in the whole of Hong Kong. In the 70’s, trucks of local farmers from co-operatives of different districts came here non-stop. After the handover, large trucks containing mainland produce replaced them. Today, local produce only takes up less than 2% of supply in the market.

    In the mid 80’s, there were a few incidents of poisonous vegetables in Hong Kong. But challenge also brings about opportunities. Citizens become increasingly aware of food safety. The Agricultural, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) introduced the Accredited Farm Scheme in 1994, encouraging farmers to deploy best practice and use pesticides appropriately in order to regain confidence in local produce. After the handover, citizens are still suspicious about imported food from the mainland. The society has long advocated organic farming which does not involve the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The AFCD started encouraging famers to change to organic farming in 2000. However, it was still at its infancy and there was not enough technical support. Some failed and quitted, some struggled to change their course and some adhered to the traditional farming method. Traditional farming cannot make its transition to and organic farming. While organic vegetables have become the mainstream, the market neglects traditional produce nevertheless. The gap between the old and new is wide.

    There has been a heavy reliance on infrastructure and property development in the land policy of Hong Kong. Landowners would rather wait for resumption instead of renting the land out for enthusiasts to farm. There is land which is uncultivated and at the same time, there are people searching for land to farm. This is the reality of agriculture in Hong Kong now. It is difficult to find land and tenancy is short term. New organic farmers can only searcher for land in areas which are increasingly remote. Li Lin lives in the western part of the New Territories and has transitioned to become an organic farmer like Andy. Both can only find their land, and dream in remote Mui Wo and Pui O.

    Old farmers may have retired but young ones born in the 90’s inherit to become full-time farmers. Two generations of farmers met by chance in the disappearing northwestern part of the New Territories. They do not care much about income but the love of land and inheritance of skills. Famers in the past replied on bare hands to live. The new generation of famers needs to perform multiple functions. Would a new light be shed on agriculture thereafter…


    Producer: Queenie SIN

    25/10/2016
  • Culinary delights

    Culinary delights

    Hong Kong has long been known for being a food-lovers’ paradise. It has now more than 15,000 eateries, employing around 22 hundred thousand people. Hong Kongers’ expenditure on eating out also tops Asia. People live for food and the catering industry thinks that the industry is never going to flop.

    71-year-old Ho Kam-wing has been in the industry for half a century. Being the chief of the sales department now, he used to hand-write a neat menu which is a skill no longer be of use today. He also laments that there are fewer loyal customers now with a diversity of eateries to choose from.

    The prosperity of the catering industry has long been an important indicator of the economy. The industry is facing the problem of three ‘highs’: high rent, high cost of ingredients and high wage of staff. These, to a certain extent, crash the operators and the situation is getting worse.

    Wong Yiu-hang came to Hong Kong in the 60s and had 33 restaurants at the peak of his career. Now only six remain. Wong’s son, Simon, joined the management team in 2007 and thinks that the high rent is only something to be dealt with once in every two to three years. Whereas, the high cost of ingredients can be coped with by sourcing from suppliers around the world. However, the persistent problem of manpower shortage is really pulling his hair. The catering industry has long hours of work and the weekends are also for work. In 2011, the Minimum Wage Ordinance was passed and it was estimated that closedowns would be resulted due to the increased cost. Yet, the reality was far from it. Simon is a member of the Minimum Wage Commission and thinks that shortage of manpower, especially for dishwashers, is severe. Employers have long offered an hourly wage above the minimum wage for their staff. The problem lies in the fact that other industries are relatively relax comparing with the catering industry, which makes the shortage problem persists.

    40 something Alex joined the catering industry when he was 15. Six year ago, he first co- invested with his friends to open a restaurant. He also concurs that it is getting more difficult to recruit staff. Being the boss himself, Alex needs to take up the dishwashers’ work for three to four nights a week. In 2010, he co-invested with friends to set up a central dishware cleaning depot to secure the availability of clean utensils for his restaurants. How does the industry react to this outsourced dish washing service?

    In view of high rent and shortage of manpower, Carl, the boss of a Japanese restaurant chose to leave the traditionally busy district and set up his business in residential area to attract local spending. Rent is cheaper and recruitment is easier. The turnover might not be as good as it was in Tsim Sha Tsui in the past but it is consistent. Would local eateries be the answer to operation for small enterprise?

    Producer: Margaret LIU

    18/10/2016
  • Half centennial of printing

    Half centennial of printing

    The printing industry of Hong Kong has a long history. As early as the colonial days, the British government wanted to develop Central and Sheung Wan as the commercial centre. By the 50’s, the economy took off which resulted in the rise in demand for printing matters by trading companies around Central and Sheung Wan. Many family-run letterpress printing shops were set up subsequently. Yam Wai-sheng’s father was one of them. Their printing shop has gone through the stages from using manual printing machine to the Heidelberg printing machine popularized in the 60’s.
    Many came to Hong Kong after the war in search of livelihood. The 88-year-old Yip Shing-lam, a founder of a printing factory also came to Hong Kong at that time and set up his printing business in Central. Though the 67 riots was a low time for him, business flourished afterwards. By the 70’s, the stock market was doing so well that he got plenty of orders to print documents for initial public offerings and he made money out of it.

    Industry took off in the 80’s which saw the printing industry flourishing even more. Yip Sze-yuen, Yip Shing-lam’s son, decided to join his father’s printing factory at that time. He said a majority of printing factories was operating around the clock. Siu Han-wah, the boss of another printing factory also set up his business in the 80’s. Initially, he did letter press printing and then changed to offset printing. He said that though the cost of a single-colour offset printing machine in those days was very high, it served to sustain the employment of the company’s seven members of staff.

    Siu Chak-ming, Siu Han-wah’s son decided to inherit his father’s business in 2000. The father-and-son dual introduced the advanced four-colour printing machine to develop the business and served predominantly advertisers, printing mainly pamphlets. Unfortunately, the financial tsunami a few years later resulted in a global economic downturn which impacted on business. On top of that, advertisers have been using new media such as mobile phones for promotion in recent years which has replaced the print media. Printing factories are facing much challenge.

    In the 90’s, wage of mainland workers was low which attracted many printing business to develop in the north. Ng Yau-sheng was one of them. He had employed more than a thousand workers in his printing factory in Dongguan, producing mainly gift boxes and greeting cards. Due to the ever-rising wage of the mainland and different government policy, the cost of operation has been on the rise and made business difficult.


    Though the printing industry is facing much challenge, Choi Wing-chiu, the boss of another printing factory does not think that it is a sunset industry. He actively introduces different kinds of new technology to stay competitive and thinks that it is the only way to stand out in the survival of the fittest game.

    Producer: Thomas PONG

    11/10/2016
  • The way of the sales person

    The way of the sales person

    ‘It’s just not enough to settle for this kind of service attitude’ was a slogan which taught the people of Hong Kong the expectation on sales persons. They should not simply be the one who pass the product to the customer and take the money. Rather, they are the very image of a brand and a company. Hong Kong has enjoyed being called the famed ‘shopping paradise’ for many years, owing to the endearing smile, warm greeting and courteous attitude of sales persons.

    The SARS in 2003 saw the economic downturn of Hong Kong. The retail industry shouldered the responsibility of being the leader to put the various industries back on track at that time. It was also because of SARS that the mainland launched the Individual Visitors Scheme in response to Hong Kong’s request. Visitors from the mainland have gradually become the biggest source of customers for Hong Kong’s retail industry. Growth was escalated and yet, it also resulted in the heavy reliance on only a few sectors of the industry. Streets were crowded with pharmacies, chain gold retailers and cosmetics retailers. Brother Win has been working in a large scale gold retailer for more than 50 years. He recalled that there was no special training back then and he only learned by observation to absorb knowledge of each gold piece. He could only become the ‘front desk person’ when his learning was completed. On the contrary, Roy, his junior, joined the retailer when business was flourishing three years ago. The company puts more stress on training service attitude. Though chain gold retailers are crowding the streets now, there are still family-run business which guard their old shops and serve the neighbourhood across generations, without fearing change.

    The Individual Visitors Scheme has engineered the skyrocket growth of the retail industry, increasing demand for front line sales persons. However, the unemployment rate of young people is still high. In 2013, the government established the Task Force on Manpower Development of the Retail Industry to explore the reason for young people’s reluctance of joining the retail industry. The reason was young people and their parents were not having a good impression on the industry, thinking that it means long hours of work and a lack of future. Especially for the secondary six students who were graduated with the Diploma of Secondary School Examination in recent years, a majority of them would prefer continuing their education through different means instead of being sales persons. Brother Kwan, who has been working in a Chinese products company for over forty years, talks about how he rose through the ranks from a trainee to manager through self-learning. Nowadays, the government launches the Earn and Learn Pilot Scheme with the industry and the Vocational Training Council to provide more opportunities for young people to practise. This allows the new generation of front line sales persons to equip themselves and be prepared to face the challenge of reality before joining the industry.

    Producer: Clarissa MA

    04/10/2016
  • Re-finding the guiding star

    Re-finding the guiding star

    ‘The guiding star’ was an analogy put forward by the public to describe social workers in the 70’s and 80’s. It represents their ability to bring light for the disadvantaged. However, since 2000, the new generation of social workers has been facing much challenge if they would like to shine like their predecessors.

    2000 was a turbulent year for the social welfare industry. The government launched the new system of lump-sum grant to replace the previous arrangement of reimbursement. Though the new system has given social services organizations the power of flexible management and deployment of resources, the service pledge and assessment standards which follow has created intangible restrictions on the autonomy of frontline social workers. Rigid stipulation of service hours and number of targets, after-service reports and documents exhaust the new generation of social workers. Moreover, wage of new entrants of social workers has also delinked with government pay scale. As a cost-saving measure, organizations implement ‘same work different pay’ and contractual arrangement for their staff, making it more difficult for the young generation of social workers to fully engage in the industry and provide long term and stable service.

    Looking back, the 80’s and 90’s were the most diverse era for the social welfare industry. Volunteer organizations and the government worked in partnership to provide a prosperous environment for social workers to explore diverse services which met community needs. In the micro sense, personal counselling service was provided and in the macro sense, advocacy on social development was also done. Social workers cured not only the person but also society. It is a pity that given the current social atmosphere, advocacy on social issues is regarded as creating inharmony and opposition. Organizations would avoid doing advocacy in order not to affect the subsidy and tender they can get. To realize the responsibility of making social change, the new generation of social workers can only struggle to do their best.

    The future may be clouded for the social welfare industry, two generations of social workers take pain in finding room to be on track again. The guiding star wishes to continue leading the road ahead.

    Producer: Maggie YU

    27/09/2016
  • Building the Path

    Building the Path

    The mission of the architect is to fuse art and science to construct our city. Yet, in Hong Kong architecture is a commodity, stressing on functions and profit instead of individual style. That is why any generation of architects needs to choose between reality and dreams.

    The economy of Hong Kong took off in the 80’s and 90’s and new towns were developed subsequently. The demand on residential projects was huge and property prices skyrocketed. At that time, there was only one university offering architecture degree course. Architects were of great demand and there was no worry of job opportunity. Vincent Ng, the current president of the Hong Kong Institute of Architects graduated in 1985 and he was among the fortunate group. He conceded that there was plenty of work at that time and it was almost like following the flow. Today, he chooses to do communal projects, thinking that they provide more opportunity to excel than working for private developers. He wishes that he could revert to the people-oriented approach of design.

    After the handover in 1997, the financial crisis took place and the property bubbles bursted. For “maximizing profit”, developers optimize all the permitted gross floor area which results in strange forms and names of buildings such as those creating the wall effect with high density and obstructive ventilation and views, corn-like buildings with stacked bay windows and cake-like residential buildings with gigantic platform. Bizarre plans also appear at the expense of residents’ fundamental living experience. Architectural graduates of this generation are not contented working for the property hegemony and are fearful of becoming just the developers’ draftsmen. Also, Hong Kong has developed into a city of high density and there is little room for architects to excel. Stephen Ip, an architect born in the 80’s, chooses to work in the mainland to execute his ideals. There are other architects treading the unbeaten path. Ricci Wong, Otto Ng and Yip Chun-hang set up an alternative architectural practice in 2013, specializing in small-scale projects such as interior design and art installation with their knowledge and skill. They hope to build another path and think that architects today should not resort to drawing and submitting plans but build by themselves to create a better living environment for the citizens.

    Producer: Leo LAI

    20/09/2016
  • Three generations of Recycling Specialists

    Three generations of Recycling Specialists

    The recycling industry of Hong Kong has a long history.

    Lau Yiu Shing has been in the industry for almost 40 years. His depot is a family business. Lau Choi, his father, was an entrepreneur who started trading used material around the area of Cha Kwo Ling from the 50’s and 60’s. His business expanded in the 70’s and 80’s and even became an exporter of used papers, packaging them and exporting to Taiwan, south east Asia and mainland China by barges. His fellow practitioner Leung Pui Lun is also experienced in the trade. Leung’s father started out as a coolie and has been through the golden era of the recycling industry in the 80’s. By the end of the 90’s, the business faced difficulty due to the closing down of two paper-making factories of Hong Kong. His industry association negotiated with the government to continue operating in a piece of land near Kai Tak Airport. Unfortunately, the tenancy was not renewed upon completion. At that time, his son Leung Chun Pong decided to give up his studies and came back from Canada to inherit the business, moving the depot to Fo Tan and carrying on the business. In 2003 when SARS struck, citizens’ health awareness was increased and he grasped the opportunity to launch the fiber glass bin for recycling clothing, the first of its kind in Hong Kong. It was his turning point.

    After SARS, citizens’ awareness of environmental protection was enhanced. Many housing estates organized a variety of recycling activities. Vecell Ng started a recycling company targeting private housing estates at that time. Later, she responded to the government’s Programme on Source Separation of Domestic Waste by designing a specific separation bin which got her much business. Though Vecell’s company focuses mainly on recycling domestic waste, Leung Chun Pong is skeptical about the private housing estates market and would rather focus on commercial waste. In recent years, he has even changed his course to providing the new service of destroying confidential document.

    The biggest challenge faced by the recycling industry is high rent. Lau Yiu Shing thinks that the government did not offer any support to the recycling industry before 1997. After 1997, land was offered in the form of short-term tenancy for bidding by recycling operators. The one with the highest bid gets the tenancy. Lau thinks that this is a high land premium policy in disguise. As a result, recycling operators who get the tenancy are only willing to recycle material which provides higher revenue such as used papers and used iron. They are reluctant to recycle other types of material such as plastic, which requires higher cost of investment with slower return.

    However, Lau Yiu Shing thinks that there is ample business opportunity if used plastic could be separated and processed to become raw material. More than 10 years ago, he co-invested with his friends on a factory in Thailand specializing in recycling used bottles, which are made into raw material after cleaning and breaking. Though the quantity for recycling is low and the cost is high, Lau’s operation was not much affected when "Operation Green Fence" was implemented in the mainland in 2012, banning the import of much non-separated used plastic material from Hong Kong. They hope that the experience of Thailand can be brought to Hong Kong and achieve success with the government’s support and their skills.

    Producer: Thomas PONG

    13/09/2016
  • Passing it on, how?

    Passing it on, how?

    The media industry has changed dramatically with technological development. News is instantaneous and has to be delivered to the public the quickest way possible. Traditional printed media change the mode of operation by doing online version and mobile application, updating information and news around the clock. It poses a great challenge for the new generation of reporters.

    Photojournalists often need to work with both hands, taking photographs and video at the same time. They also need to transmit photographs and footage to the office. Reporters often do interview, transcribe the content and send to the office via SMS at the same time, enaling colleagues to write script and edit. This mode of work which crazes for speed and work flow is not an ideal training method in the eyes of pervious generation of media practitioners. Moreover, editors also need to take care of technological issues on top of working for longer hours, e.g. testing if browsing on smartphone is smooth.

    The popularization of smartphones makes people love taking and uploading photographs. It makes everybody a reporter. Would traditional reporters see the recently emerged citizen reporters as competitors?

    Apart from the impact on the new generation of media posed by technology, the change of political environment seems also to shrink the space for news reporting. Frontline reporters feel the restrictions posed on their job and editors also need to endure the pressure imposed by the senior level of the media organization. The mainland market flourished after 1997 and businessmen owing media organizations often need to take into consideration the business side of things, impacting on editorial autonomy.

    The proposed legislation of Article 23 after the handover and the passing of the Interception of Communications and Surveillance Ordinance in 2006 were also alarming for the news industry. Has the reporters’ role of disclosing the truth and monitoring the government been shaken? How does two generations of reporters see the challenge posed on them?

    Producer: Annie YAU

    06/09/2016
  • Succession & Continuity

    Succession & Continuity

    ‘To observe, listen, inquire and touch’ are the four components of conducting basic diagnosis in Chinese medicine. Chinese medicine has long been a therapeutic method in China. There had been Chinese medicine hospital in Hong Kong, Tung Wah Hospital, as early as 1872. The administration introduced western medicine to Hong Kong when it became a British colony and the development of Chinese medicine was neglected. Practitioners of Chinese medicine were only required to register as ‘Herb sellers’ in order to operate. As a result, the professionalization of Chinese medicine has not been possible without a system.

    In 1997, Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa announced the establishment of a system to assess and regulate the standard of Chinese medicine and recognize the professional qualification of Chinese medicine practitioners. It aims to lay a good foundation for the development of Chinese medicine in the healthcare system of Hong Kong.

    In 1998, Hong Kong Baptist University started a Chinese medicine programme. In the following two years, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and The University of Hong Kong also started their programmes. In 2000, the Government required Chinese medicine practitioners to register. Under the new policy, those who have been practicing for over 15 years could register directly, after which they could also issue certificate for sick leave. In 2014, the Government implemented the policy of establishing Chinese medicine clinic in all 18 districts of Hong Kong, incorporating Chinese medicine into the healthcare system of Hong Kong.

    81-year-old Luk Shun-hoi has been practicing Chinese medicine for over 40 years, working his way up from the lowest level in traditional herbal shop in the mainland and Hong Kong. Though being a member of the Chinese Medicine Council of Hong Kong and Chinese Medicine Practice Sub-committee, he missed the deadline for registration nonetheless and could only become a ‘Listed Chinese medicine practitioner’. Compared with college-trained young practitioners, he regarded his clinical experience as an advantage.

    Being in practice for more than 40 years, Ho Kwok-wai started to learn from his father when he was 16 and went for further studies in practitioners’ union of the private sector. When hearing about the Government’s intention to regulate Chinese medicine, he was also worried about if he could go through the transition smoothly.

    32-year-old Dennis Au is a young college-trained practitioner. He established a chain Chinese medicine clinic with his partners. They aim to modernize Chinese medicine with independent consultation room, computerized medical and prescription record. He might often be criticized as ‘possessing knowledge but lacking experience’, his business has now expanded with 8 outlets nonetheless. Dennis also organizes volunteers to provide free consultation in impoverished countries, wishing to establish a Chinese medicine equivalence of Médecins Sans Frontières.

    With different policies imposed by the Government on the Chinese medicine industry, what are the opportunities and challenges faced by practitioners of these three generations?

    Producer: Margaret LIU

    30/08/2016
  • 網站獲奬:

  • 在新分頁開啟第五屆傳媒轉型大獎
  • 在新分頁開啟2014優秀網站選舉十大優秀網站